The evolution of Spartina anglica C. E. Hubbard (Gramineae) - origin and genetic variability. Spartina, known as cordgrass, is native to Europe and was introduced to New Zealand as an estuarine stabiliser plant. Du-plication of the hybrid genome gave rise to Spartina anglica, a vigorous allopolyploid involved in natural and Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 127: 1-10 Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition, structure, and interactions ? Spartina anglica • Stems are solid and short (10-40 cm) – much smaller than mature Spartina anglica • Ligule (joint between leaf blade and stem) has ridge with small, dense bristles (Spartina species have fine, straight hairs) Arrow-grass grows in circular clumps similar to Spartina anglica… Inheritance of chloroplast DNA in most angiosperms is strictly maternal and can thus be used to test the parentage of hybrid taxa. Spartina anglica - a research review. Spartina is a saltmarsh, not a dune species. For example at Poole Harbour, England, S. anglica introduced in 1899, expanded to cover over 200ha (more than 60% of the intertidal mud flat) by 1924 (Gray & Raybould: in Patten 1997). The relationship between sulphate, dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), and glycine betaine concentrations as well as the interaction with nitrogen supply in Spartina anglica Hubbard was investigated. Spartina anglica (Common Cordgrass) is a species of cordgrass that originated in southern England in about 1870. The sterile F1 hybrid S. ×townsendii gave rise to the fertile allopolyploid S. anglica by chromosomal doubling. : New Zealand (Oceania) United States (North America) China (Asia) Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Spartina anglica is a fertile allododecaploid (2n = 12x = 120, 122, 124) species that arose from S. × townsendii at Hythe in Southampton Water in England in the 1880s. Abstract details; Author(s) Gray, A. J.; Raybould, A. F. Conference paper; Two species of spartina were planted within the New River Estuary and there is now hybridisation between the two species: Spartina townsendii which does not produce viable seeds, and; Spartina anglica which produces seed. Spartina anglica C.E. Toggle navigation. One example of an invasive Spartina alterniflora hybrid is that of Spartina anglica. 1991. Go! Spartina alterniflora can become an invasive plant, either by itself or by hybridizing with native species and preventing propagation of the pure native strain. Taxonomic name: Spartina anglica C. E. Hubbard Synonyms: Spartina x townsendii sensu lato, Spartina x townsendii fertile amphidiploid, Spartina x townsendii agg. Ongoing suppression of dune formation prolongs favourable conditions for Spartina. Contextual translation of "spartina" into English. Hacker S D, Heimer D, Hellquist C E, Reeder T G, Reeves B, Riordan T J, Dethier M N, 2001a. Spartina anglica displays wider ecological amplitude than its parents across the successional sequence of salt marsh zones (Thompson, 1991). Spartina alterniflora, introduced into the UK in the 1800s, was the seed parent in an interspecific hybridization with S. maritima. Tasmania and southern Victoria). Spartina anglica, a plant that controls coastal erosion, is widely distributed throughout the world and is rich in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.The hemicellulose from Spartina anglica can be extracted and hydrolyzed into monosaccharides and xylooligosaccharides under acid or enzymatic digestion conditions. Spartina anglica C.E.Hubb. Hubb. The history and evolution of Spartina anglica in the British Isles. Spartina anglica is known for the unpredictable production, viability and germination of its seeds. The salt marsh grass Spartina anglica is an important habitat-modifying ecosystem engineering agent that facilitates large-scale salt marsh formation by enhancing sediment accretion. Spartina anglica is about as tall as S. × townsendii, but has thicker, longer rhizomes, with only half the tiller density of S. × townsendii (Marchant 1967). Spartina anglica is a hybrid of Spartina maritima and Spartina alterniflora, first identified in Britain at the beginning of the 19 th century and then exported into the world for coastal defence because of its ability to enhance sedimentation. The colonisation and expansion of common cord-grass Spartina anglica worldwide (except to some extent in the UK) is largely the result of introduction of an exotic organism into an area. General information about Spartina anglica (SPTAN) EPPO Global Database. It dominates many European tidal environments and is invasive in many other parts of the world. J. Linn. The American Spartina then crossed with the native Spartina to make a hybrid form. Hubb., Bot. Spartina 3 townsendii arose during the end of the 19th century in England by hybridization between the indigenous Spartina maritima and the introduced Spartina alterniflora, native to the eastern seaboard of North America. Ireland, France, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands), and in New Zealand, western North America (i.e. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native. Spartina anglica (a name which is strictly invalid, but widely accepted, having first appeared in the second edition of C E Hubbard's book in 1968) is frequently described in textbooks as the classic example of a natural amphidiploid. Register. Human translations with examples: spartina, cord grass. Also naturalised elsewhere in western Europe (e.g. The following relationships have been collated from the published literature (see 'References'). Spartina anglica colonisation and physical effects in the Tamar Estuary, Tasmania 1971-91. Spartina anglica is a textbook example of a natural amphiploid, which originated from hybridization between S. alterniflora and S. maritima.Which of these species was the maternal parent has remained a mystery. Spartina anglica, a plant that controls coastal erosion, is widely distributed throughout the world and is rich in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. 76(4): 364. Spartina × townsendii arose during the end of the 19th century in England by hybridization between the indigenous Spartina maritima and the introduced Spartina alterniflora, native to the eastern seaboard of North America.Duplication of the hybrid genome gave rise to Spartina anglica, a vigorous allopolyploid involved in natural and artificial invasions on several continents. In an astonishing bout of natural genetic engineering Spartina X townsendii doubled its chromosome number. Human translations with examples: inglaterra. Spartina anglica C.E. Several studies have already shown that nitrogen affects levels of DMSP and glycine betaine in Spartina. 43:111-126. A marine plant (Spartina anglica) invades widely varying habitats: potential mechanisms of invasion and control. One example of an invasive Spartina alterniflora hybrid is that of S. anglica. This version was infertile but could spread vegetatively. Home; Standards . At some sites, such as in Tasmania and the San Francisco Estuary, there are clear examples of the threat to biological diversity caused by this introduction (Lee & Partridge, 1983). Spartina anglica C.E. Spartina anglica is a classical example of recent alloploid speciation. Figure 4: Common Cord Grass (Spartina anglica); the only grass that survived the spraying aimed at eradicating it in August 2019. Raybould AF, Gray AJ, Lawrence MJ, Marshall DF. Spartina anglica (common cordgrass) is a species of cordgrass that originated in southern England in about 1870 and is a neonative species endemic to Britain. Please see the bibliographic details to the right. Biological Invasions. Images from the web. This is a title only record which contains no abstract. It is an allotetraploid species derived from the hybrid Spartina × townsendii, which arose when the European native cordgrass Spartina maritima (Small Cordgrass) hybridised with the introduced American Spartina alterniflora (Smooth Cordgrass). A marine plant (Spartina anglica) invades widely varying habitats: potential mechanics of invasion and control. Top of page. advanced search... Login. The resulting species was called Spartina anglica. 211-217. ITE Research Publication no. 1990. Quick facts. (Common Cord-grass) Interactions where Spartina anglica is the victim or passive partner (and generally loses out from the process) . Contextual translation of "anglica" into Spanish. The hemicellulose from Spartina anglica can be extracted and hydrolyzed into monosaccharides and xylooligosaccharides under acid … Spartina anglica has been planted around the coast of SE England, and throughout the world, to help stabilise sediments and reduce wave erosion of sea defences. It was reclassified as Sporobolus anglicus after a taxonomic revision in 2014, but Spartina anglica is still in common usage. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Abstract. This was called Spartina X townsendii. Hubb. Abstract. California, Washington and western Canada) and temperate Asia. 2. Contrasting with its introduced parental species S. alterniflora that remains localized on few sites, S. anglica has rapidly spread along the West‐European coast ( Baumel et al ., 2001 ). Soc. Previous chromosome, isozyme, and cpDNA surveys did not reveal notable genetic variation within either the parental or the hybrid species. Abstract. 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